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This article discusses the current literature related to intraoperative and preoperative risk factors for pressure ulcer development. Although surgical patients have a high risk of pressure ulcer development, the intraoperative period of patient care has often been missed as a time of increased risk. Pressure ulcers, which may originate in the operating room, may be incorrectly blamed on postoperative areas of care resulting from delay of pressure ulcer demarcation. In the literature review, current risk assessment tools do not adequately address intraoperative risk factors. A risk assessment tool that incorporates the specific variables relevant to the preoperative and intraoperative environment is proposed based on existing literature. A pilot study of the tool was done testing for intrarater reliability.