Incidence of Pressure Ulcers in the Institutionalized Elderly

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PURPOSEThe aim of this study was to analyze the incidence of pressure ulcers (PUs) in elderly people living in long-term care facilities (LTCFs).DESIGNWe completed a prospective, comparison cohort study.SUBJECTS AND SETTINGNinety-four persons, 60 years or older, participated in the study. Participants resided in 4 not-for-profit LTCFs in 3 cities in the southern region of the Brazilian state of Minas Gerais.METHODSParticipants underwent complete skin examination and Braden Scale rating every 2 days for 3 months. When a PU was detected, a careful examination was done to assess its stage, location, and size. From this moment on, the patient was included in the incidence rate and was excluded from the study.RESULTSThe incidence rate of PUs was 39.4%; 37 (77.1%) developed a single ulcer. The most common locations were the malleolus (27.1%) and the ischium (25.0%). Stage I PU were most frequent (66.7%). Females (62.8%) and whites (68.19%) prevailed, with an average age of 79.06 ± 9.6 years. Body mass index was 20.93 ± 4.9, with a predominance of urinary diseases (58.5%) and use of neuroleptics/psychotropics (52.1%); 28.7% had had a previous ulcer. Gender and the occurrence of a previous ulcer were found to predict the development of PU, based on logistic regression analysis (r2 = 0.311).CONCLUSIONSThe overall incidence of PU was significant, but the incidence of stage II and higher PUs was less than 12% and no elders had stage III or IV ulcers. Factors associated with PU development include female gender, regular use of neuroleptic or psychotropic medications, and a history of pressure ulceration.

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