Singh AK, Seavey CN, Horvath KA, Mohiuddin MM. Ex-vivo expanded baboon CD4+ CD25Hi Treg cells suppress baboon anti-pig T and B cell immune response. Xenotransplantation 2012; 19: 102–111. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.Background:
CD4+ CD25+ FoxP3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells play an important role in regulating immune responses. A very small number of Treg cells are present in peripheral blood and lymphoid organs, but due to their ability to suppress the immune response, they have a high potential for immunotherapy in clinics. Successful ex-vivo expansion of naturally occurring CD4+ CD25+ T cells has been achieved after TCR stimulation in the presence of T cell growth factors. In this study, we evaluated the role of these Treg cells in suppressing proliferative response of baboon T and B cells to pig xenoantigens.Methods:
Naturally occurring baboon CD4+ CD25+ regulatory T cells (nTreg) were sorted from peripheral blood and expanded in the presence of either anti-CD3/CD28 beads or irradiated pig peripheral blood mononuclear cells with IL-2. Treg cells were also enriched directly from CD4+ T cells cultured in the presence of rapamycin (0.1–10 nm). Mixed lymphocyte culture and polyclonal B cell stimulation with ex-vivo Treg cells were performed to assess the function of ex-vivo expanded Treg cells.Results:
The nTreg cells were expanded to more than 200-fold in 4 weeks and retained all the nTreg cell phenotypic characteristics, including high levels of FoxP3 expression. 2-fold increase in enrichment of CD4+ CD25+ FoxP3+ Treg cells from CD4+ cells was observed with rapamycin compared to cultures without rapamycin. The ex-vivo expanded Treg cells obtained from both methods were able to suppress the baboon anti-porcine xenogeneic T and B cell immune response in-vitro efficiently (more than 90% suppression at 1:1 ratio of T regulatory cells: T effector cells), and their suppression potential was retained even at 1:256 ratio. However, freshly isolated nTreg cells had only 70% suppression at 1:1 ratio, and their suppressive ability was reduced to ≤50% at 1:16 ratio. Furthermore, we have found that ex-vivo expanded Treg can also suppress the proliferation of B cells after polyclonal stimulation. Forty to 50 percent reduction in B cell proliferation was observed when ex-vivo expanded Treg cells were added to the culture at a 1:1 ratio. The addition of CD4+ CD25Neg cells however induced vigorous proliferation.Conclusion:
Ex-vivo expanded CD4+ CD25+ FoxP3+ Treg cells can be used to efficiently suppress xenogeneic immune responses by inhibiting T and B cell proliferation. These ex-vivo expanded Treg cells may also be used with other immunosuppressive agents to overcome xenograft rejection in preclinical xenotransplantation models.