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Galvão FHF, Farias AQ, Pompeu E, Waisberg DR, Teixeira ARF, de Mello ES, Lino Costa AC, de Castro Galvão R, Santos VR, Chaib E, Carrilho FJ, D'Albuquerque LAC. Endoscopic features in a model of multivisceral xenotransplantation. Xenotransplantation 2010; 17: 423–428. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.Xenotransplantation and multivisceral transplantation are advanced therapeutic methods that still require a scientific basis. There are no experimental models of multivisceral transplantation available, particularly not the monitoring by endoscopy. Here, we describe the endoscopic features in a model of multivisceral xenotransplantation.The distal esophagus, stomach, intestine, colon, liver, pancreas, and the kidneys with a common vascular pedicle were harvested from rabbits and implanted in swine (group I, n = 9) or in rabbits (group II, n = 4). Endoscopy was performed in the stomach, jejunum, and ascending colon at four consecutive time points (immediate after surgery and 10, 90, and 180 min after reperfusion). Lesions were macroscopically graded as mild, moderate, and severe. Biopsies were taken following sacrifice at 180 min after reperfusion.In group I, the stomach, jejunum, and colon manifested a progression of lesions with predominance of mild lesions after 10 min, mild to moderate lesions after 90 min, and moderate to severe lesions after 180 min. In animals from group II, endoscopy showed normal features at all time points after reperfusion. Histopathologic analysis confirmed the diagnosis of hyperacute rejection in group I. Grafts from group II animals presented normal or mild ischemic/reperfusion injury.All animals subjected to multivisceral xenotransplantation showed a progression of endoscopic lesions with time after transplantation, while animals subjected to allotransplantation showed no aberrations in endoscopy. We conclude that endoscopy is a useful tool in the assessment of hyperacute rejection of a xenograft.