Antimicrobial Usage in Chicken Production in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam

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Antimicrobials are used extensively in chicken production in Vietnam, but to date no quantitative data are available. A 2012–2013 survey of 208 chicken farms in Tien Giang province, stratified by size (10–200 chickens; >200–2000), was carried out to describe and quantify the use of antibacterial antimicrobials (usage per week per chicken and usage per 1000 chickens produced) in the Mekong Delta and to investigate factors associated with usage. Twenty-eight types of antimicrobial belonging to 10 classes were reported. Sixty-three per cent of all commercial formulations contained at least two antimicrobials. On 84% occasions, antimicrobials were administered with a prophylactic purpose. The overall adjusted quantities of antimicrobials used/week/chicken and per 1000 chickens produced (g) were 26.36 mg (SE ± 3.54) and 690.4 g (SE ± 203.6), respectively. Polypeptides, tetracyclines, penicillins and aminoglycosides were the antimicrobials used by most farms (18.6% farms, 17.5%, 11.3% and 10.1% farms, respectively), whereas penicillins, lincosamides, quinolones, and sulphonamides/trimethoprim were quantitatively the most used compounds (8.27, 5.2, 3.16 and 2.78 mg per week per chicken, respectively). Factors statistically associated with higher levels of usage (per week per chicken) were meat farms (OR = 1.40) and farms run by a male farmer (OR = 2.0). All-in-all-out farming systems (correlated with medium farms) were associated with reduced levels of antimicrobial usage (OR = 0.68). Usage levels to produced meat chickens were considerably higher than those reported in European countries. This should trigger the implementation of surveillance programmes to monitor sales of antimicrobials that should contribute to the rational administration of antimicrobials in order to preserve the efficacy of existing antimicrobials in Vietnam.

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