Psychotic Symptoms Predicting Evidence Integration in Schizophrenia: A Multivariate Analysis of the BADE Task

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Abstract

A bias against disconfirmatory evidence (BADE) is a cognitive bias associated with delusions in schizophrenia. Previous studies reporting an association between reduced evidence integration and delusions used a single measure of delusion severity, typically to form patient groups. In the current study we perform an exploratory analysis to investigate whether BADE is specific to delusions or extends to other symptoms of psychosis. To address this, we used constrained principal component analysis (CPCA) on four merged BADE studies on schizophrenia to explore the component structure in the BADE task measures that is predictable from symptoms. A component reflecting evidence integration emerged, and was predicted by delusions as expected, but also by thought disorder. This provides novel methodology for cognitive neuropsychiatric investigations into the underpinnings of the symptoms of schizophrenia by enabling investigators to consider a range of symptoms alongside the one that is the target of their investigation.

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